Walpurgis (fol. 32r )
Description: I was allowed to inspect the manuscript on March 13th 2003, in the Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds. I did however only have sufficient time for some general notes. The MS is bound with an unconspicuous modern (18th or 19th century) wrapping. To the inside front cover, as well as on a piece of paper glued to the MS, earlier owners have written notes (fol. i-iii). The MS itself consists of 32 leaves of parchment, each bearing ink drawings and text on both sides. The clothes of the characters depicted has been coloured in black, blue, green and brown without any recognizable system. The text contains initials in red, as well as single letters traced with red ink and text highlighted with red ink (verses).
History: The MS became known to a broader audience only in 1997 through the article The medieval swordsman: a 13th century German fencing manuscript (Royal Armouries Yearbook 2 1997, pp. 129-136) by Jeffrey L. Singman (Forgeng).
sacerdos and scolaris (fol. 14r)
the 'finder' left his name on page 13 (fol. 7r)
Translation: The text of the MS is accessible to me in the form of a photocopy of a transcription. I made a german translation in 2003 on the base of which I later compiled an english translation. At the time of my initial translation, I had no possibility to verify this transcription beyond what is possible from the photocopy scans available on the internet (cf. references). In the meantime, I have gotten hold of high resolution colour scans of the MS. These images now appear in reduced size alongside the text. Text in grey marks a hand different from the main text. The symbol of the cross (signum crucis) marking the beginning of a new sequence, I give as (+).
fol. i.-iii. (binding):
Notes, probably made when the MS was in
quaternum .i.: fol. 1r 1v 2r 2v 3r 3v 4r 4v 5r 5v 6r 6v 7r 7v 8r 8v
quaternum .ii.: fol. 9r 9v 10r 10v 11r 11v 12r 12v 13r 13v 14r 14v 15r 15v 16r 16v
quaternum .iii.: fol. 17r 17v 18r 18v 19r 19v 20r 20v 21r 21v 22r 22v 23r 23v 24r 24v
quaternum .iv.: fol. 25r 25v 26r 26v 27r 27v 28r 28v 29r 29v 30r 30v 31r 31v 32r 32v
seven wards --
first ward (below the arm) --
second ward (right shoulder) --
third ward (left shoulder) --
fourth ward (above the head) --
sixth ward (breast)
seventh ward (longpoint) --
"upper longpoint" --
"special" longpoint --
fifth ward (right side) --
"special" longpoint --
Index of technical terms:
durchtreten, durchtritt ('stepping through') 2v, 9r, 9v
halpschilt ('half shield') 2r, 3r, 8v, 13r, 14v, 23v, 24v, 25r, 27v, 28r, 29r, 32r
langort ('long point') 1r, 1v, 6v, 14r, 16r, 17v, 20r, 21r, 23r, 23v, 24v, 25r, 26r, 27r, 30r
schiltslac ('shield thrust') 2r, 2v, 16v, 18r, 23r, 25r, 29r, 30v
schutzen ('protection') 3v, 9r, 26v, 28r, 30r, 31v, 32r
stich ('stab') 3v, 4r, 20r, 28v
stichschlac ('stab-thrust') 2r, 10r
vidilpoge ('fiddle-bow') 22r, 22v
Latin: (conventions for the translation)
calceo `step (through)'
dimicator; dimicatio, ars dimicatoria `fencer; art of fencing'
invado, intro `enter'
ligacio, ligo `binding, bind'
obsessio, obsedeo, obsessor `displacement, counter, counterer (also in variants possessor etc.)
plagam recipere `execute/place a strike'
Since I created these pages, numerous contributions concerning the MS appeared on the web. What follows is an incomplete selection.
Dr. Jeffrey L. Forgeng, The Medieval Art of Swordsmanship from Chivalry Bookshelf
Frank Cinato: on Lutegerus.
I.33 flowcharts by John Jordan
ARMA article and microfilm scans.
Boar's Tooth has pictures of Dave Rawlings' very dynamic interpretation.
myschwerk; czech translation.
Dieter Bachmann, 2003.